What Should You Know about DNA, Gene, and Chromosome
Many people still can’t differentiate between chromosome, gene, and DNA. Actually, they are totally different. In the simplest way, the chromosome is a part of a human that builds from many pieces of genes. On the other hand, DNA is a series of protein that keeps the information about the human. And, regions of dna within each chromosome are called the gene. However, to find out more about those three important parts of human, let’s take a look at the explanation below.
What is DNA?
DNA or Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a substance that you can find inside the chromosome. Every cell’s nucleus has a chromosome that will carry the information that affects the human. DNA in every cell of a person mostly has a similar structure. The location where the DNA will affects the name of that DNA.
There is DNA that you can find in the cell nucleus. It’s called as nuclear DNA. The other DNA is mitochondrial DNA. You can find this DNA in the mitochondria. And the inside nucleus regions of dna within each chromosome are called genes.
Maybe, you are familiar with the shape or structure of DNA that looks like two strands of coiled thread in the shape of a double helix. This is the real shape of DNA. Between the two strands, there are colorful parts that shape like stairs. They are forms of chemical substances with four specific codes, which are A, T, C, and G.
This DNA form is made of two long polymers. We call this polymer as nucleotides. The nucleotides have backbones, which is made of sugar and phosphates compounds.
What DNA Do?
As we mentioned above, regions of dna within each chromosome are called genes. Therefore, we also can call DNA as strings of genes. And, inside this string, there is a lot of information that affects the human who has it inside their body. The information affects hair color, eye color, body structure, and many other things.
This is what makes DNA unique and have no similar structure and shape between each human. With these properties, DNA has the function as the factor that can recognize human identity. Therefore, DNA test has been used for identifying humans, such as to find out the corpse identity or blood relation.
DNA code is described by using four letters with three letter formation, as mentioned before. The three letters formation has different meaning and substance that will be formed by it. They are ATG, CCC, GAA, and GGG. Here are the substances that can be formed by those three letter formation:
ATG – Tyrosine
CCC – Glycine
GAA – Leucine
GGG – Proline
Basically, in the DNA structure, each of those combinations will make a cell of your body to form a structure consist of those substances. For example, if there is a DNA strand with ATG-CCC-GAA-GGG, it will make the cell to form a formation of Tyrosine-Glycine-Leucine-
Basically, the function of DNA is like a programming code, while cell and chromosome are similar to a computer. Once the code is entered, the computer will execute it and create what the computer was told by the programming code.
What is Chromosomes?
The chromosome is a structure that looks like thread inside the human cell nucleus. The thread is formed by the coiled DNA thread. Inside the chromosome, we don’t only find DNA. There are also regions of dna within each chromosome are called genes in it, as well as protein, nucleotide and others substances.
You can only see the chromosome in a specific condition. Usually, you use a microscope to see the microorganism. You also can see the cell nucleus with a microscope. However, with just a microscope, you won’t be able to see the chromosome. The condition you need to meet to see this magnificent structure is only when the cell is in the process of dividing. This is the only moment where you can see chromosome clearly.
What is Gene?
Now, let’s move to the regions of dna within each chromosome are called. You can call genes as the ingredient to executing the program that DNA tells to the chromosome. Inside the genes, you can find many different substances that will be added to the process. For example, if the DNA tells the cell to start the creation of the muscle, the gene will add the protein needed for that process.
Gene doesn’t only work on the building process of the organ inside your body. However, it also affects how your body operates. For example, the genes will affect the digestion process, heart pumping process, and many more.
the unique thing about the gene is the dominant part. There are many types of genes inside your body that hold different characteristic. And, they don’t have an equal position. Some of them are dominant against each other. This is also the reason why everyone has what they are good and bad at.
For example, a person can roll their tongue while other can’t do that. this ability is caused by the dominant genes that have characteristic or program for tongue rolling ability. This is also the reason why you will say someone who is good at something as “it is in their gene.” Although it’s just an expression, if we are looking at it from the science perspective, actually this is true.
DNA, chromosome, and gene are three different existences inside your body. Even though they are different, each of them has important roles and strong connection. DNA is the part that will give the command to the chromosome. Gene will provide the protein that supports that command. Then, chromosome will tell the cell to execute the command.
However, genes have an important role to decide whether the command from DNA will be executed or not. It will only execute when it has a similar function to the dominant gene. This is also information that shows the importance of regions of dna within each chromosome are called gene here.