DNA and RNA are made up of Nucleotides which contain a Sugar, a Base, and a Phosphate Group—the Importance of Knowing Them
It is advantageous to know the DNA and RNA are made up Nucleotides which contain a sugar, a base, and phosphate group, especially in the medical field. Having the DNA and RNA knowledge makes people easy to know why they have certain diseases and how to search for therapies. This will help people decide what to do about their illness.
What are DNA and RNA?
- The term DNA comes to our lives all the time, but do you really know what it is? DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. This is the human and all living organisms’ hereditary material. Every cell in human’s body contains similar DNA. Most of the DNAs are inside the cell nucleus that is why these kinds of DNA are called Nuclear DNA. A small number of DNAs are located in the mitochondria (the structures inside cells being able to convert energy coming from food into the form that is usable for cells) that is why these kinds of DNA are called Mt-DNA or Mitochondrial DNA.
- While the term of RNA also comes to our life, but many of us don’t really know about it. Like Proteins and DNA, RNA is also a biological macromolecule which is very important in human and all living organisms’ bodies. It stands for Ribonucleic acid and consists of Ribose Nucleotides that functions as the genetic codes’ carrier in several viruses.
More Functions of DNA and RNA
DNA functions as the carrier of genetic material from one generation to the next generation. It controls the life of human and other living organisms directly and indirectly. When multiplying, DNA is as the auto-catalyst. This is also as the hetero catalyst to other substances. On the other hand, RNA functions as the information keeper. This is also as the intermediary of Proteins and DNA in the process of genetic expressions occurring in human and other living organisms.
The Difference between DNA and RNA
DNA and RNA are made up Nucleotides which contain a sugar group. There are at least five major differences. The content of DNA is sugar deoxyribose, while the content of RNA is sugar ribose. DNA is considered a two-stranded molecule, on the other hand, RNA is considered a one-stranded molecule. Under the alkaline conditions, DNA is stable but RNA is not. DNA is required to transfer and store genetic information. RNA does the coding directly for the amino acids and functions as the messenger of DNA and ribosomes when making proteins. When pairing, DNA uses adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine bases. RNA uses uracil, cytosine, guanine, and adenine when pairing. Uracil and thymine are different since Uracil in the ring is lack of methyl group.
Interesting facts about DNA and RNA
- DNA and RNA are made up Nucleotides which contain a phosphate group. They indeed have interesting facts. You know that a parent and a child share 99.5 percent of the same DNA, and every human has DNA that is similar to chimpanzee’s 98 percent. If someone can type sixty words per minute and eight hours per day, DNA can type the human genome for fifty years. Every one of us can carry mutations, which can be harmful and helpful because we can be exposed to many things such as damages from ultraviolet and other activities to cause errors to DNA during the transcriptions. Some mutations can cause deadly diseases to come up. Some DNA repairs can deal with the damages well, but some can’t. Thanks to high technology, nowadays it is easy to edit genomes leading to the diseases’ cures. You know that human’s DNA also similar to the worm living inside the mud. In fact, the worm is the closest invertebrate to human genetically. Human’s DNA is similar to cabbage’s DNA 40-50 percent.
- A human cell comprises five percent of RNA. Some viruses only contain RNA and don’t contain DNA at all. RNA is not able to store genetic information for such a long time, but it works primarily in the transcription. RNA agriculture technology is used to make fruits not ripen quickly by helping the fruits to remain in the vines and stems longer. Any defected RNA can cause deadly diseases such as cancers, heart diseases, and strokes to people. RNA can function as enzymes where robosomes function as catalysts in the process of speeding up chemical reactions. Cell division, the aging process, and cell’s death are regulated by RNA. With the help of RNA, people can create therapies to eliminate carcinogenic genes causing cancers.
Other benefits of knowing about DNA and RNA
- As mentioned before, in the medical field to know about DNA and RNA is very essential. DNA and RNA are made up Nucleotides which contain a base group. If we know them well, we will know if someone actually has a connection with other people. Someone with a certain disease will be able to contact other people with the same genetic mutations and variants suffering from the same disease. There is an example of a father sharing his child’s rare illness because of a certain genetic variant in his blog. This father had helped a family having a child with the same genetic variant and suffered from the same rare illness. The family whose child’s illness hadn’t been diagnosed could finally deal with the rare illness.
- It has been known widely that DNA and RNA can help police department catch people committed crimes. Obviously, people can deal with potential harms and unwanted consequences well. With the technology that improves itself from time to time, experts can easily expose the signs that other people leave after drinking, touching, using, etc. With the signs of DNA and RNA, people will be able to identify the characteristic of other people’s physical appearance such as facial structures, sexes, ages, heights, weights, and genetic mutations, variants, and diseases.
- With high technology to combine with the knowledge of RNA and DNA, parents-to-be will be able to find out if their baby has a potentially harmful disease or not. Parents will be able to decide if they can let the baby live or not. If they decide to let the baby live, they will be more prepared for their baby’s illness.
- People in the medical field and other field related will be able to find ways to health improvements and effective treatments to cure people with certain diseases.
So, what do you think? Don’t you think it is essential to know deeply about DNA and RNA? Hopefully, the article about DNA and RNA are made up Nucleotides which contain a sugar, a base, and a phosphate group does give you more knowledge.