What Are The Three Main Components Of A Dna Molecule

3 Important Parts of DNA Molecule and Its Functions

DNA is one of the most important parts of our body. Inside the DNA, you can find thousands of information about you. We can say that DNA is your true identity. The combination of many substances inside the DNA can tell the cell to do that it has to do. For example, if the DNA has a combination that creates the tall body property, it will tell your cell to do the same. In the end, you will have a tall body.

It’s so fascinating, how the smallest part of your body can affect your body as a whole. More than that, DNA also has an amazing structure which makes it able to do that. In the DNA, there are three main components. So, what are the three main components of a dna molecule?

The DNA Main Components

As mentioned above, DNA has three main components. They are:

–       Phosphate,

–       Deoxyribose (some kind of sugar substance),

–       Nitrogen, which is divided into four type of bases:

  • Adenine
  • Guanine
  • Cytosine
  • Thymine

And that’s the answer to what are the three main components of a dna molecule question. More than that, each of those components has a unique structure. The Adenine and Guanine have the double ring shape. With this shape, these bases are called purine.

On the other hand, the Cytosine and Thymine have a different shape. Unlike the first two Nitrogenous bases, these two has a single ring shape. And, we call this shape pyrimidine. Both of them, purine and pyrimidine, has different function and capabilities.

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The Interesting Thing about 3 Main Components of DNA

Now, if you look at the four bases of Nitrogen we mentioned above, you will see something familiar, don’t you? If you don’t know, take a look at the first letter of each base. Yes, the first letter of the bases are similar to the DNA code that we usually see, A, G, C, and T. Actually, these 4 bases are an important thing, because it will decide and affect the combination of the information inside the DNA.

The funny thing is for every DNA molecules, there can’t be more than 3 component/substances. So, the structure will be one part of Phosphate, one part of Deoxyribose, and one part of Nitrogen base. This is what you call as DNA. And, the chain of this DNA forms a famous two strand helix shape, which is well-known as a gene.

As you can see, there is only one among those four Nitrogen bases that can shape a DNA molecule. And, the base that includes in this structure also decides the code name of that DNA molecule, such as T, A, G, or C molecule. The Nitrogenous bases that affect the type of the DNA code are also called nucleotide. And, each of the parts that form a DNA nucleotide has its own function.

The Functions

So what are the three main components of a dna molecule? Just like mentioned above, there are phosphate, Deoxyribose, and one Nitrogen base. Each of them has a specific function:

–       Phosphate

If you see the DNA diagram, you will find this part has round shape and locate at the end of the DNA molecule. As you can see, this part becomes something like a connector between DNA molecules. With this connector, many DNA molecules will form two strands of DNA, which is also known as a gene.

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–       Deoxyribose

The only sugar part of the DNA molecule acts as a base. This is the place where the Hydrogen base stuck. This is also part that will make a long strand of DNA molecule. This part is also known as the sugar backbone. That’s true because this is the only place that makes a combination applicable.

–       The Hydrogen Base

In the DNA diagram, this part looks like a bridge that connects two DNA strands. The main function of this part is as an information holder. The combination between Hydrogen bases in two strands of the gene will create unique properties of the human that own that gene. And, it also affects the body and even the personality of that human.

As mentioned above, each of the Nitrogenous bases has a different shape. therefore, it can only connect to the other base with a different shape. You won’t find Adenine and Guanine place side by side in the DNA strands. Both of them have the same shape, which makes them impossible to connect with each other. Therefore, Adenine and Guanine, that has a double ring shape, can only be connected to the single shape base, which is Cytosine and Thymine.

However, they can still stand side by side on one of the strands. This placement creates the code combination that becomes the way to identify the DNA code. For example, you can see ATC-TTT-GCG and other types of combination.

By looking at this combination, you won’t only answer what are the three main components of a dna molecule question. but, you also can decide the identity of the person that has that combination. This is useful for many purposes, such as remains identification or DNA test to find out about blood relation between two or more people.

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The Changes

What’s more amazing, your DNA also can change its combination. It happens by forming a special substance called RNA and places it on the DNA nucleotide sequence and force to change the combination.

The RNA was formed by copying the code of the original DNA and uses it as a template. By adding the RNA into the combination, it also forces the strand to expand. Thus, it will create a new characteristic of the person that owns that DNA strand.


Understanding DNA is seriously difficult because even though its small size, there is tons of information that will amaze you. If you want to know more, maybe you should seriously learn it on the degree program related to DNA. At there, you won’t only find the simple answer of what are the three main components of a dna molecule question. but, you will find the real secret of a human.

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